Track 6: Attitudes & Persuasion
Uzma Khan (University of Miami)

6B. Product Evaluation & Use

Saturday, March 5
11:15am – 12:45pm EST
Discussant: Uzma Khan (University of Miami)
MC: Marissa Sharif (University of Pennsylvania)
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Student Coordinator: Rin Yoon (Cornell University) (

Competitive Papers

Push it Past the Limit: The Slippery Slope of Product Misuse
Authors: Evelynn Devos (Ghent University), Mario Pandelaere (Virginia Tech), Anneleen Van Kerckhove (Ghent University)
Presenting Author: Evelynn Devos (Ghent University)
Consumers misuse their products by pushing them beyond their limits­­ (e.g. tumble-drying clothes that cannot withstand heat). Failing to adhere to stated product limits may result in severe consequences such as damage to the product and/or injury to the user, especially when products are pushed too far. Therefore, we research whether past successful misuse experiences make consumers escalate in product misuse. Results show a slippery slope of product misuse: when consumers exceeded product limits in the past without experiencing any downsides thereof, they will exceed the product’s limit even further, because they estimate the odds of negative consequences less likely.
The Modest Marketer: Do Consumers Ever Assume that Products Last Longer Than Marketers Claim?
Authors: Mathew S. Isaac (Seattle University), Elisa Konya-Baumbach (University of Mannheim)
Presenting Author: Elisa Konya-Baumbach (University of Mannheim)
In contrast to the assumption that marketers’ product longevity claims (e.g., “Product X lasts 3 years”) are exaggerated, we identify a condition in which consumers infer these numerical benchmarks to be conservative. Specifically, when repurchase cues are present, consumers assume that marketers have strategically selected a conservative benchmark. In four experiments, we demonstrate the robustness of this modest marketer inference and show that it stems from a sinister presumption about marketer motives (i.e., that marketers seek to hasten unnecessary product replacement) rather than a benign one (i.e., that marketers seek to optimize the product experience of their customers).
Satisfied Yet Disloyal: A Portrayal of Fickle Consumers
Authors: Ekin Ok (University of British Columbia), Darren Dahl (University of British Columbia), Dale Griffin (University of British Columbia)
Presenting Author: Ekin Ok (University of British Columbia)
Although an extensive literature describes what marketers should do to cultivate loyalty, many sources claim that consumer disloyalty is becoming the new norm. Reflecting this notion, we introduce the construct of consumer fickleness, which captures the individual variation in the propensity to become a loyal customer across different service contexts. In ten studies, we develop and validate the Consumer Fickleness Scale (CFS), from which we derive three unique motivators for fickle behavior: 1)Commitment aversion, 2)Novelty-seeking, 3)Entitled maximization. We then demonstrate that CFS predicts several consumption-related behaviors such as switching intentions, loyalty card ownership, preference for shorter-term subscriptions, and higher WTP for options offering flexible cancellation.
How Consumers Navigate, Evaluate, and Choose While Searching For Products
Authors: Alexander Moore (University of Chicago Booth School of Business), Dan Bartels (The University of Chicago Booth School of Business)
Presenting Author: Alexander Moore (University of Chicago Booth School of Business)
The Weitzman model of consumer search stipulates an optimal strategy for navigating between and choosing products for which consumers have different expectations. For example, when searching for flights, it specifies the number and order of websites to visit and which flight consumers should purchase. It is used as a normative benchmark for search and has been calibrated using market data on consumers search for products, stores, and brands. Across 6 experiments, we directly test its predictions. Consumers’ behaviors roughly conform to the predictions of the model when making judgments, as well as navigation and termination decisions. However participants tend to make fewer normative decisions when search costs are high (vs low). We find some evidence of the simplifying heuristics that participants use to make these search decisions without relying on the complex calculations described in the Weitzman model.

Flash Talks

The Curious Case of Delayed Information: When Delayed Attributes Are Overweighted In Product Evaluations
Authors: Robina Ghosh (University of Texas at Austin), Ty Henderson (University of Texas at Austin), Wayne Hoyer (University of Texas at Austin)
Presenting Author: Robina Ghosh (University of Texas at Austin)
As new formats of purchasing environment formats proliferate online and in-store, marketers must decide not only what product information to present but when to present it. This research investigates how delaying attribute information affects the way consumers use the attribute while evaluating products. While prior literature suggests delayed information plays a diminished role in evaluations (i.e., primacy and insufficient adjustment), we find that delaying attribute information can actually augment the attribute’s role in evaluations. Augmentation is contingent on how important the attribute is to the consumer. Our predictions draw from work on curiosity, which we extend to decision-making contexts.
The Competing Preferences Illusion
Authors: Stephen Baum (UC Berkeley), Leif Nelson (UC Berkeley)
Presenting Author: Stephen Baum (UC Berkeley)
In 11 studies (combined N = 13,711), we demonstrate that consumers mistakenly believe that various preferences are more mutually exclusive than is the case. For example, consumers infer that if someone likes Coca-Cola, they must dislike Pepsi. However, the true correlation between the two preferences is observable, strong, and positive. Moreover, consumers appear to neglect how a specific preference (e.g., a taste for beer) implies a superordinate preference (e.g., a taste for alcohol). Consumers lean on incorrect lay theories about how preferences are related (e.g., “beer people are not wine people”) when assessing others’ likes.


BOGO free frees you: Promotions and Adventurous Product Choices
Authors: Junha Kim (The Ohio State University), Joseph Goodman (The Ohio State University)
Presenting Author: Junha Kim (The Ohio State University)
One goal for many marketers is to introduce new products and encourage consumer trials. However, trying new and adventurous products comes with risk and the potential for regret, which consumers tend to avoid. Examining how different types of promotions affect what consumers choose, we propose that quantity promotions can reduce the anticipation of regret by how they are framed. Two studies demonstrate that consumers are more likely to choose more adventurous, less traditional options when a pricing strategy is framed as a quantity promotion (i.e., BOGO free) compared to similar pricing promotion (i.e., 50% off). The results suggest that certain promotions not only affect whether a consumer buys, but what they buy as well. Brands that want to discourage switching and new product trial may want to avoid certain promotional strategies.
The Feeling of Coherence: When and Why Shoppers Switch to Brand’s Official Stores
Authors: Deepak Sirwani (Cornell), Manoj Thomas (Cornell University)
Presenting Author: Deepak Sirwani (Cornell)
When and why do shoppers switch from their trusted regular retailers to brand’s official stores? For example, several shoppers prefer to buy Coach bags from the brand’s official store even when the identical product is available at the same price on Results from five experiments suggest that this paradoxical store switching is caused by the coherence between the product and the store—a phenomenon we label as the store-coherence effect. When the motivational relevance of a product is high, shoppers are more likely to rely on experiential processing, which makes them more sensitive to the coherence between the product and the store. It is this increased sensitivity to coherence that makes them instinctively switch from their regular retailer to the brand’s official store. Five experiments demonstrate that motivational relevance increases sensitivity to coherence and rule out several alternative accounts.
The Effect of Product Expectations on the Effectiveness of Transparent Packaging
Authors: Lyndsay Loomer (University of Georgia), Sarah Whitley (University of Georgia), Julio Sevilla (University of Georgia)
Presenting Author: Lyndsay Loomer (University of Georgia)
"This research challenges the assertion that transparent packaging is beneficial for visually appealing products, suggesting that transparent packaging can instead harm perceptions of attractive and indulgent goods if their appearances do not live up to the mind’s eye. The expectation disconfirmation process between a priori expectations and evaluations made upon seeing the product underlies the effect of transparent packaging on quality perceptions. Findings across five studies demonstrate that transparent packaging benefit (harm) products with low (high) a priori expectations, an effect that is mediated by pre-purchase expectations disconfirmation, with a priori product expectations driven by consumers’ pre-purchase evoked emotions. "
Recovering Abandoned Shopping Carts with a Bundling Message
Authors: Lina Xu (New Mexico State University), Mihai Niculescu (New Mexico State University)
Presenting Author: Mihai Niculescu (New Mexico State University)
How do marketers recover the abandoned shopping carts? This research offers a novel approach—using the proportionality of the prices to create dynamic product bundles. Adopted an existing mental accounting scenario, two studies show that percentage-framed price changes can ease shoppers’ pain of paying and increase their likelihood of going back to check out in a mixed-gain and a no-gain-no-loss situation. These findings extend the pricing literature by introducing the effect of mixed price changes and providing an actionable and cost-effective method to improve e-tailers' shopping cart abandonment rate.
Does a ‘Made in China’ Label Make People Show Less Care for Products?
Authors: Evelynn Devos (Ghent University), Mario Pandelaere (Virginia Tech), Anneleen Van Kerckhove (Ghent University)
Presenting Author: Evelynn Devos (Ghent University)
Sparked by its believed Chinese origin, the covid-19 virus has often inappropriately been labeled as a “Chinese virus”, which intensified the discrimination and hate crimes individuals of Asian heritage face. While previous research focused on adverse actions towards these individuals, it is unclear how exported products made in Asia are treated. Country-of-origin labels have been found to affect product evaluations and purchase intentions, but do they also impact how consumers use products? We show that negatively perceived country-of-origin labels such as ‘Made in China’ reduce how much care consumers (intend to) show for products, because consumers value Chinese-made products less.
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